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Характерные синтаксические позиции: предикат (сказуемое).

Общее значение: деятельность, процессуальность.

Морфологические особенности: наиболее продуктивные глагольные суффиксы: -ize, -fy, -en, -ate.

Предикативная функция – установление связи между ситуацией, описанной высказыванием и реальностью. Грамматически выражена в формах времени, вида, залога и наклонения.

Представлен двумя наборами форм: финитными (личными) – способными выражать грамматические значения лица и числа; и нефинитными (неличными) – не способными выражать данные значения, а именно инфинитивом, причастиями и герундием.

 Классификация английских глаголов










To live, to spend, to play

To have, to be, to do, will, shall, would, should

Can, may, must, ought, need, dare, have to, be to, should, would, shall, will

To begin, to continue, to stop, to try, to fail, to manage, to turn out, to happen

To be, to seem, to appear, to seem, to taste, to look, to become, tp grow, to remain, to stay, to keep


Полное лексич., грамматич.



Частичное лексич., грамматич.

Частичное лексич., грамматич.

Тип сказуемого

Простое глагольное

Простое глагольное

Составное глагольн. модальн.

Составное глагольн. аспектное

Составное именное


Грамматические категории: лицо, число, время, вид, залог, наклонение

Инфинитив объединяет черты глагола и существительного

Герундий объединяет черты глагола и существительного

Причастие настоящего времени объединяет черты глагола и прилагательного

Причастие прошедшего времени объединяет черты глагола и прилагательного


Задание 1. Ознакомьтесь с содержанием текста. Определите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова (исключая заголовки). Определите их функции в предложении.


Tightly packed collections of partially digested or undigested material that remain in the stomach indefinitely.

Partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetable matter are called trichobezoars or phytobezoars, respectively. Food bolus (ie, a loose aggregation of pits, seeds, citrus pith, or milk coagulum [lactobezoar] in toddlers) or concretions of medication (sucralfate, aluminum hydroxide gel), shellac, or even bubble gum may mimic true bezoars and are referred to as pseudobezoars.


Trichobezoars, which may weigh up to 2.7 kg (6 lb), most commonly arise in patients with neuropsychiatric disturbances. Phytobezoars almost always occur in patients after a Billroth I or II partial gastrectomy, especially when accompanied by vagotomy. Hypochlorhydria, diminished antral motility, and incomplete mastication are the main predisposing factors. The vertical banded gastroplasty used in the treatment of morbid obesity has been associated with gastric bezoars. Diabetic gastroparesis is also a characteristic setting for bezoar formation. Finally, consumption of a unique berry, the "unpeeled" persimmon, has caused epidemics of postgastrectomy bezoars, which require surgery in > 90% of cases.

Symptoms and Signs

Most bezoars cause no symptoms, although postprandial fullness, nausea and vomiting, peptic pain, and GI bleeding may occur. Occasionally, postgastrectomy bezoars may cause small-bowel obstruction, as the sievelike function of the pylorus is absent.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Usually bezoars are detected on x-ray and may be mistaken for tumors. On endoscopy, bezoars have an unmistakable irregular surface and may range in color from yellow-green to gray-black. An endoscopic biopsy that yields hair or plant material is diagnostic. Bezoars have also been demonstrated by abdominal ultrasound and CT.

A food bolus requires no treatment, rocklike concretions and trichobezoars require surgery, and phytobezoars fall between these extremes. A liquid diet, gastric suction and lavage, and endoscopic fragmentation with forceps or jet spray may break up bezoars. A chemical regimen often works better: 1.2 L of dissolved cellulase (0.5 g/dL water) given orally over 24 h for 2 days. Metoclopramide 40 mg/24 h IV or 10 mg q 4 h IM for several days may increase peristalsis by accelerating gastric emptying.


Задание 2 Найдите глаголы с прямым дополнением

Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common articular disorder, begins asymptomatically in the 2nd to 3rd decades and is extremely common by age 70. Almost all persons by age 40 have some pathologic change in weight-bearing joints, although relatively few have symptoms. Men and women are equally affected, but onset is earlier in men.

OA occurred in ancient animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles (dinosaurs), birds, mammoths, and cave bears. OA affects almost all vertebrates, suggesting that it appeared with the evolutionary arrival of the bony skeleton. It occurs in whales, dolphins, and porpoises, which are supported by water, but not in bats and sloths, which hang upside down. This suggests that OA is an ancient Paleozoic mechanism of repair and remodeling rather than a disease in the usual sense.

Задание 3. Ознакомьтесь с содержанием текста и определите формы выделенных глаголов. Прокомментируйте, почему именно эти формы используются в тексте.

Avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis; ischemic necrosis of bone; aseptic necrosis; osteochondritis dissecans): Focal bone infarction, which may be secondary to various conditions or idiopathic.

Pathologic changes are characterized by cell death in bone resulting from compromised blood supply. The magnitude of avascular necrosis is a function of the degree of circulatory compromise. The femoral head (hip) is most commonly involved; the femur at the knee and the humeral head (shoulder) are frequently involved; the body of the talus, carpal scaphoid, and navicular bone are less commonly involved.


In the USA, 5% of cases of osteoarthritis of the hip requiring hip replacement are caused by avascular necrosis. The peak incidence is between ages 30 and 60. Idiopathic avascular necrosis of the femoral head has a male:female ratio of 4 to 5:1. In 33 to 72% of patients, the disease is bilateral. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease of the apophyses and epiphyses in children and adolescents and other osteochondroses have been thought to be caused by avascular necrosis, although this is now less certain (see The Osteochondroses in Ch. 270).


Various primary diseases have been associated with avascular necrosis; some are more clearly established as causative (see Table 53-1).

The most common sites of posttraumatic avascular necrosis are the femoral and humeral heads, the body of the talus, and the carpal scaphoid. Posttraumatic avascular necrosis develops when blood supply is impaired and is thus a function of the relative contributions of arteries to the femoral or humeral head and the extent of anastomoses between them, which varies among persons.

Hip dislocation may tear the ligamentum teres and the joint capsule, compromising vessels lying in the capsular reflections. Of hips that remain dislocated longer than 12 h, 52% develop avascular necrosis versus 22% of those reduced within 12 h. In postfracture fixation, the incidence of avascular necrosis and bony collapse ranges from 11 to 45% and does not seem related to the surgeon's skill or fixation device.

Avascular necrosis of other causes most often occurs at the hip, followed by the humeral head. Two major theories on the mechanism of action are intraluminal obliteration of end vessels (eg, by fat emboli, sickle cells, or nitrogen bubbles in decompression sickness of deep-sea divers) or extraluminal obliteration caused by increased marrow pressure by Gaucher cell proliferation or increased marrow fat. There is also an idiopathic avascular necrosis at the knee occurring most often in elderly women.


Задание 3 К какой части речи относятся выделенные слова? Какую роль в предложении они играют?

The greatest challenge it might face is to infect human beings – profound chromosomal changes occur during the brief period that EHEC passes through the human gastrointestinal tract, leading to gains and losses of virulence determinants.

Bacterial enteric infections of human beings, especially those that are acute, are interesting for clinicians, disease control authorities, food and agricultural industries etc.

They must resist proteolysis, saponification from bile, mucosal defensins and other antimicrobial peptides, secretory immunoglobulin A, and varying degrees of anaerobiasis.

The study of these genomes has provided many surprising insights over the past decade.

Bacterial enteric patogene genomes vary severalfold in size and complexity, ranging from 1.6 Mb to 5.5 Mb

Because some genes of the second chromosome typically are found on plasmids, it has been proposed that this chromosome might have derived from a megaplasmid of another Vibrio species.

The genomic organization of closely related bacteria is very similar.

Recently, linear plasmids have been described in Salmonella typhy.

This complicates efforts to categorize existing strains into sharply delineated pathotypes and hampers attempts to predict those novel combinations of virulence factors that could lead to new emerging clones.

This process also is believed to give rise to antigenic variants of proteins and of proteins with novel functions, thus enabling bacteria to evade host immune responses and adapt to different microenvironments.

Comparative genomic analysis of H pylori isolates associated with chronic atrophic gastritis suggests that certain genes are, indeed, lost or gained during progression of adenocarcinoma.