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Классификация лексикона

Классификация лексикона

Части речи – классы слов языка, выделяемые на основании общности их синтаксических, морфологических и семантических свойств.

Знаменательные части речи – существительное, глагол, прилагательное, наречие (+ числительное, местоимение)

Служебные части речи – союз, предлог, частица, междометие.

Имя существительное

Характерные синтаксические позиции: субъект (подлежащее), объект (дополнение), предикатив (именная часть сказуемого).

Общее значение: субстанциальность, вещественность.

Морфологические особенности:

А) возможно наличие лексических суффиксов

Суффиксы абстрактных существительных

Суффиксы конкретных существительных


Leakage, vicarage

-(i) an

Parisian, republican


Betrayal, portrayal, refusal

-ant/ -ent

Assistant, student, informant

-ancy/ -ency

Vacancy, tendency




Freedom, kingdom


Refugee, employee, payee


Brotherhood, childhood


Teacher, worker, singer


Meaning, cleaning


Musician, politician, physician





Operation, tension, examination


Artist, gynecologist


Darvinism, feminism


Visitor, actor


Agreement, employment


Booklet, leaflet


Darkness, weakness


Actress, tigress, waitress


Friendship, membership




Cruelty, sanity, banality




Growth, strength


Usherette, cigarette


Difficulty, honesty

Б) возможно образование составных существительных по следующим моделям:



N + N

Seaman, airmail

Adj + N

Bluebell, blackbird

V + N


Ger + N

Looking-glass, dancing-hall

N + Prep + N

Father–in-law, man-of-war


Forget-me-not, marry-go-round

Грамматические категории:

Род (мужской, женский, средний, общий)

Число (единственное, множественное)

Падеж (общий, притяжательный)

Определенность/ неопределенность

Задание 1

Ознакомьтесь с содержанием отрывков и выполните следующие задания:

Прокомментируйте значение притяжательного падежа имен существительных, выполнив необходимые трансформации. Какими средствами русского языка вы будете передавать это значение при переводе?

Выпишите имена существительные и разбейте их на 2 группы: абстрактные и конкретные

Определите род обнаруженных вами имен существительных.

Goodpasture's syndrome: A hypersensitivity disorder (see Ch. 148) of unknown cause, characterized by circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in the blood and linear deposition of immunoglobulin and complement in the glomerular basement membrane and causing pulmonary hemorrhage with severe and progressive glomerulonephritis.

The most prominent symptom is heartburn, with or without regurgitation of gastric contents into the mouth. Complications of GERD include esophagitis, esophageal stricture, esophageal ulcer, and Barrett's metaplasia. Esophagitis may cause odynophagia and even hemorrhage, which can be massive. Peptic stricture causes a gradually progressive dysphagia for solid foods. Peptic esophageal ulcers cause the same type of pain as gastric or duodenal ulcers but are usually localized to the xiphoid or high substernal region. They heal slowly, tend to recur, and usually leave a stricture on healing.

For patients with inexplicable complaints, a patient-oriented clinical approach with appreciation of the psychosocial aspects of illness should be followed (see also Ch. 185).

The history should be obtained by open-ended, interview-style questions. The physician must identify the location and quality of the symptoms, when and where they occur, aggravating and alleviating factors, and any associated symptoms.

The role of psychologic stress factors must be considered. Such data infrequently emerge from direct inquiry.

The prevalence of obesity in the USA is high and rising higher. In the past decade, the overall prevalence rose from 25 to 33%, an increase of 1/3. Prevalence varies significantly by sex, age, socioeconomic status, and race (see also Obesity in Ch. 275). Prevalence is 35% among women and 31% among men, and it more than doubles between the ages of 20 and 55. Among women, obesity is strongly associated with socioeconomic status, being twice as common among those with lower socioeconomic status as it is among those with higher status. Although prevalence among black and white men does not differ significantly, obesity is far more common among black than among white women, affecting 60% of middle-aged black women compared with 33% of white women.

Задание 2

Ознакомьтесь с содержанием отрывка текста.

Найдите неисчисляемые имена существительные. Определите, являются ли они абстрактными или конкретными и принадлежат ли они к группе Singularia Tantum или Pluralia Tantum.

Найдите исчисляемые имена существительные и образуйте недостающую форму числа.

Small-bowel biopsy of the jejunum is a routine procedure that simultaneously allows samples of jejunal juice to be taken for microbiologic testing of the intestinal flora (see Table 30-2). Endoscopic biopsies are also suitable but should be taken beyond the second part of the duodenum. The mucosal sample can be examined grossly by hand lens or dissecting microscope and by light or electron microscopy, and tissue homogenates can be assayed for enzyme activity. Specific diagnoses include Whipple's disease, lymphosarcoma, intestinal lymphangiectasia, and giardiasis (in which the trophozoite may be seen in close association with the villous surface). Jejunal histology (villous atrophy) is also abnormal in celiac disease, tropical sprue, and dermatitis herpetiformis.